Throughout history, many were matrilineal because the social ties and structure were organized around the feminized work of crop cultivation. Conversely, hunter-gatherer societies were typically patrilineal because their social ties and structure were organized around the masculinized work of hunting.
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Because women are at the center of work and survival in horticultural societies, they are highly valuable to men. For this reason, polygyny —when a husband has multiple wives—is common. Meanwhile, it is common in horticultural societies that men take on political or militaristic roles. Politics in horticultural societies is often centered on the redistribution of food and resources within the community.
The kind of agriculture practiced by horticultural societies is considered a pre-industrial subsistence method. In most places around the world, as technology was developed and where animals were available for plowing, agrarian societies developed. However, this is not exclusively true.
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